Childhood lingers

Ready white checkered dress the stage, lighting and the presence of focus. The audience attentively, to see performers sequential admission alone, exposed himself in front of everyone. Some performers timid and dull, only the side of caution in Taiwan deterred, not into the center of the stage was illuminated; some are brave and active, ran on stage after the race before, enjoy exploring the world of this novel . No, this is not a super woman fast men, not a TV reality show. It is located in Canada Read (Technology)
From: Science Science squirrel squirrel will list will be published at 8:25 ago
Ready white checkered dress the stage, lighting and the presence of focus. The audience attentively, to see performers sequential admission alone, exposed himself in front of everyone. Some performers timid and dull, only the side of caution in Taiwan deterred, not into the center of the stage was illuminated; some are brave and active, ran on stage after the race before, enjoy exploring the world of this novel .
No, this is not a super woman fast men, not a TV reality show. It is located in Montreal, Canada McGill University (McGill university) of the Neuroscience Laboratory, where neuroscientist Michael Meaney, Professor (Michael Meaney) and his colleagues are working on a baby by the mother's caress of the adult After psychological and behavior, and stage performers who have different behavior is not Guys and Dolls, but a born and grew only in adult laboratory rats.
Maternal breast-feeding in to the rats, sometimes arch their back, licking caressing arms of the little guy, but this "love" because of the frequency behavior of female rats vary. Scientists have found that those who are less caressing the mother mice, grew up on a strange environment is often full of fear the police; the contrary, "the proliferation of maternal love," the mother more likely to raise a fearless future generations. More interesting is that, if not so used to caress the female mice pups born to female rats sneaking around into frequent touch, these pups grow up, and acted also as their mother's children, most of them look fearless and full of spirit of exploration. This explains, is not "cool" the mother's genes passed to future generations of cowardice, but because of the children suffered in early childhood upbringing in different ways, was a result of differences in adult behavior.
Childhood relationship with her mother (1) a tremendous impact on the growth of children is not news. In fact, most people will harbor the lack of maternal sympathy for the children. Does have a large number of scientific studies suggest that maternal childhood experiences of separation, is ignored, abandoned, abused children grow up suffering from depression, mania and other mental illness, and even the possibility of suicide than children of normal families is higher . However, the experience of childhood, whether it is how to change the trajectory of our lives, our brains would have what impact? Among all the biological truth, one from the depths of our body called the "hypothalamus - pituitary - adrenal axis" Speaking of the neural context.
Hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal line, is the hub for coordinating our response to stress, but also to ensure that our ancestors to survive in a dangerous jungle's crucial magic. When the crisis facing the outside world, our hypothalamic hormone secretion (2) on the pituitary, the pituitary gland to promote downstream hormone (3) activation of the adrenal cortex, and adrenal cortex to respond immediately, the secretion of corticosteroids. In its role, our heart rate and elevated blood sugar, fat is broken down, energy is released quickly into the body stress. However, when the critical situation in the past, a neat feedback loop into play - too much corticosteroids into the brain, inhibiting the activity of the hypothalamus and pituitary, cut off from the upper reaches of this stress response, and our bodies will return to rehabilitate the state of peace: the food is digested and absorbed, energy is stored in the body immune system actively patrolling until the next crisis comes.
Scientists noted that the lack of maternal love in the early years of the individual body of stress hormones - the level of corticosteroids even in times of peace more than the normal individuals (4), and this increased phenomenon often persists into adulthood. This is not surprising, the lack of care for elders, the young individual is very big crisis, a direct threat to their survival. So corticosteroids chest out, full body function to intervene, it is the natural choice for millions of years left us good ideas. Unfortunately, as the many other things, directing our body is corticosteroids Enron survive the double-edged sword. When the concentration high, it will cause a lot of damage to our bodies: the body is weakened immune function, sleep disorders, mental becomes easy to depression, mania, fear, and on the ability to resist drug abuse alcohol correspondingly declined. In fact, many people think that fast-paced modern society persist in the heart of each person a sense of crisis, it is a series of psychological disorders in the world the important reasons. So, these in vivo due to lack of maternal childhood climbing higher and higher stress hormones individuals susceptible to the impact of negative emotions, and indeed reasonable.
Also more than that, since from an early age with a high level of corticosteroids, hormones than the adult face after the rise and development of our brain has a more significant impact. After birth, in the first years of our lives and even two decades, the brain is still in active development being. At a time when the brain most vulnerable to the influence of various hormones, and to change their development process. Corticosteroids have been facing high levels of the brain, growth will be relatively slow - such as learning and memory on the hippocampus is essential, and as strategizing, decision-making of the orbitofrontal cortex hormone levels in these individuals, the volume is often smaller, suggesting the development of these brain really is different. On the contrary, in charge of the amygdala fear response is to increase the volume, activity increased anxiety makes individuals more vulnerable to emotional distress. The brain of these significant changes have shown that childhood experiences and changes in hormones, more often than adult experience, has a more lasting and difficult to reverse effect.
However, these findings and lengthy enough to allow scientists to be complacent, they are still confused about what is the mechanism leading to the adverse living conditions during childhood and increased by the hormone can have a significant role in such long-lasting, has allowed a few decades later still lingers in the lives of many problems. This time, the Mini professor and his colleagues further depths of the brain cells of rats to go explore the genetics of their disturbing secret.
Since the fifties of last century the double helix structure of DNA was discovered, the genetic code was cracked, it is a time of life that they have read the bible. But think about it a little, you will find all is not as straightforward. Exactly the same genetic composition in monozygotic twins - especially those who are separated for various reasons, in different circumstances between the twins grew up, their personality, psychological and even physical there are considerable differences. Also, we fingertip skin cells and nerve cells in our brains, not looks similar appearance, but in fact they are actually recorded in nuclear DNA among the same genetic information - what is the reason , so their fate so different? Scientists realized that from the DNA sequence between the appearance of life, but also a Terrier cross and an opaque black box, in the black box, our genetic code, in vivo and in vitro environment is extremely complex and sophisticated environment to interact in ways jointly determine our present and future. This one, box port has been opened, the secret of secret operations slowly to our knowledge, this is the epigenetic modification (Epigenetic modification), one of the focus of modern biology. This mechanism is in the order does not change the genetic code, based on DNA and chromosomal proteins by chemical modification (5), to achieve activation or undermine the purpose of gene expression.
Corticosteroids in the above-mentioned reaction of the brain in the pituitary and hypothalamus, cut off the stress response in the negative feedback loop to have a such a critical gene, will be decided the fate of chemical modification. The product of this gene is a known receptor protein, it is the most important feedback loop of a node. It is in the plasma membrane of nerve cells, cortical hormones into the brain, and it must be combined, to start off the downstream response. And this gene, there is a significant area of chemical modification once accepted, it will greatly weaken the ability of gene expression into proteins. Once the weak gene expression, protein product of the production decline, the brain's nerve cells will no longer be made on a high level of violent response to corticosteroids, it can not be effectively cut off the lower reaches of the adrenal cortex reaction to produce more hormones. Over time, naturally high levels of corticosteroids.
Mini teach them that, at an early age are less maternal affection rat brain cells, the glucocorticoid receptor gene is indeed with a lot of chemical modification, protein yield than those of rats by the frequent touch lower. More surprising finding from human studies - they were 12 suicides by childhood abuse, the analysis found that brain cells, they added the gene on the chemical modification of those who died were significantly higher than normal, or even higher than childhood abuse did not receive suicide. Accordingly, their production of glucocorticoid receptor protein was significantly lower than the latter two.
The lack of maternal childhood, leading to gene-modified state is changed, can actually result in a few years later, such a lasting impact. This sounds terrible phenomenon, the scientists say that, it is still in evolution and natural selection of species to be preserved, once an important mechanism for the benefit of our ancestors. In a rapidly changing modern society seems to sound unreasonable, in the original jungle, prairie, if the mother and child living environment more dangerous, the mother may be unable to concentrate caressing their children, plus from other crises in the dangerous environment will make the offspring of high stress hormone changes, and this hormone lasting modification of the nervous system to maintain high levels of hormones will make the risk of offspring in a similar environment to be more robust and effective stress response - after all, was born the places remaining years of their lives is likely to place the survival of future generations it is very beneficial. But this comes from the ancient, buried deep in our brain, memory, common in the daily pressures of modern society, perhaps no longer is our gospel.
However, if we were born in a relatively unfortunate environment, whether our life is destined to tragedy? Clearly not the case. Our body has many complex systems that can be balanced against constraints. Moreover, the modified gene and protein expression as well as the regulation of hormone levels are not irreversible. In fact, studies have shown that orphans adopted by a happy family with a new family life after six weeks of hormone levels in the body will return to normal. And even a happy childhood, children grow up as likely to be depression, anxiety and other psychological ailments. Scientists are not so much found in the receptor forging the destiny of our life key, but rather that they open a new way for us to think about heredity and environment, experience and growth, mental and physical, the complex between the individual and society and full of dynamic relationships.
This limited space, only to do her mother's influence is discussed separately, not to say that the relationship between father offspring education is not important. Although in many animals, raising their young in the father role is not large, but clearly not the case in humans. In fact, not only the father, or even other relatives, neighbors, and even nursery environment on the development of human offspring of a great childhood.
Hypothalamic secretion of pituitary hormones on the role of corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin.
Pituitary secretion, the role of hormones in the adrenal cortex is mainly ACTH.
Studies have shown that corticosteroids caused by family neglect abnormally high, while the more extreme adverse environment - such as a large number of domestic violence or been completely abandoned - are caused by abnormalities in the late corticosteroid reduced. Ontogeny of the latter study is not yet on the specific role, such as the former, but be sure to maintain normal levels of glucocorticoids are very important, too low, too high will cause negative effects.
The most common modification is linked to the DNA, and repeat several times "CG" in the sequence C, plus a methyl, or be added to the chromosome histone acetyl.
創作者 ‧軟體教學‧ 的頭像


‧軟體教學‧ 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()